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Contemporary Gayageum Notation for Performers and Composers - booksonkorea.com
Seoul National University Press

Contemporary Gayageum Notation for Performers and Composers

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ISBN: 9788952114105

 

Contemporary Gayageum Notation for Performers and Composers provides an introduction to the history of the instrument, its many forms, and performance genres. The text also provides information on special techniques and features essential for composing modern pieces for gayageum. To help elucidate the world of gayageum performance techniques, the book includes two hundred and thirty sample notations selected from traditional repertoires and seventy-seven compositions by forty-six composers, and these sample notations are accompanied by video demonstrations.
The examples cover comprehensively all techniques for gayageum performance, from the most traditional to the extremely modern. Together, the notation and video further enable the reader to grasp the performance techniques and the particularities of the notation. I hope composers who engage in writing new compositions for the gayageum can use the book and accompanying materials to better grasp the performance techniques and aesthetics of gayageum performance. Gayageum performers, as well, can also learn much about contemporary performance techniques through the pages of this book. 

 

Ji-young Yi

contact : gayageum@chol.com
yijiyoung@snu.ac.kr
homepage : www.yijiyoung.org

 

Contents

Ⅰ. Understanding the Gayageum

1. Origins of the Gayageum 36
2. Symbolic Value of the Gayageum 39
3. Types of Gayageum 41
(1) Jeongak Gayageum … 41
(2) Sanjo Gayageum … 44
(3) 18-string Gayageum … 48
(4) 21-string Gayageum … 52
(5) 25-string Gayageum … 54
(6) High-register Gayageum … 57
(7) Bass Gayageum … 58
(8) Metal-string Gayageum … 61
(9) Electronic Gayageum … 63
4. Genres of Gayageum Music 68
(1) Traditional Music … 68
(2) Contemporary Music … 72
5. Gayageum Performance Techniques 74
(1) Playing Techniques for Right Hand … 76
(2) Playing Techniques for Left Hand … 77
(3) Playing Techniques Using Both Hands … 79
6. Forms of Gayageum Performance 81
7. Gayageum Notation 87
(1) Jeongak Notation … 88
(2) Minsokak Notation … 89
(3) Contemporary Music Notation … 9

Ⅱ. Notation for Contemporary Gayageum Music

1. Basic Tuning Method for Gayageum 92
(1) Basic Tuning System for Jeongak Gayageum … 95
(2) Basic Tuning System for Sanjo Gayageum … 98
(3) Basic Tuning System for 18-string Gayageum … 103
(4) Basic Tuning System for 25-string Gayageum… 108
(5) Tuning Systems for Other Gayageum … 112
2. Notation for Right Hand 115
(1) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5 : Fingering Numbers … 115
(2) Jeongak Gayageum Playing Techniques … 116
(3) Two-finger Pizzicato … 118
(4) Playing Near the Hyeonchim … 119
(5) Playing in the Middle of String … 122
(6) Flicking … 125
(7) Nail-plucking Technique … 134
(8) Thumbnail Plucking … 135
(9) Glissando Incorporating Two or More Notes … 135
(10) Con Sordino
Senza Sordino… 138
(11) Playing without Dampening the Strings … 141
(12) Staccato … 143
(13) Harmonics … 143
(14) Bartok Pizzicato … 147
(15) Random Notes … 149
(16) R.H. : Right Hand Playing
L.H. : Left Hand Playing … 150
3. Notation for Left Hand 153
(1) Nonghyeon … 153
(2) Jeonseong … 167
(3) Toeseong … 171
(4) Ddeuldong … 171
(5) Bending Note … 172
(6) Strong Sliding Note… 173
(7) Play on the Lower String 
Return to the Upper String … 178
(8) Play on Two Lower Strings Away
Return to Original String (Two Higher Strings Away)… 178
(9) Connecting Notes through Lingering Sound … 180
(10) Progression of Lingering Notes … 186
(11) Pictorial Lingering Sound Progression … 197
(12) Alternating Lingering Tones … 200
(13)Daruchigi … 201
(14) Microtonal Progression … 204
(15) Pressing with the Left Thumb … 210
(16) The Highest Note … 210
4. Unconventional Playing Techniques 212
(1) Playing with Tremolo … 212
(2) Damping the String with the Left Hand… 221
(3) Hitting the Instrument … 222
(4) Rubbing the Strings… 230
(5) Playing on the Left Side of the Anjok … 233
(6) Playing on Both Sides of the Anjok … 235
(7) Both Hands Plucking One String… 237
(8) Press the String and Release the String… 237
(9) Lift Anjok and Strike … 238
(10) Cluster of Indefinite Pitches … 240
(11) Using Special Tools… 240
5. Special Characteristics of the Gayageum 249
(1) Change of Tuning System … 249
(2) The Limits of Changes in Lingering Tones … 251
(3) Using Microtones… 253
(4) Different Effects of Various Techniques Employed in Performing Repeated Tones … 255
(5) Playing Harmony … 261
(6) Glissando … 261
(7) Playing Grouped Notes … 262
(8) The Problem of Moving the Anjok during Performance … 269
(9) The Length of Lingering Tones … 271
(10) Progressive Half Steps… 272
(11) The Problem of Harmonics … 274
(12) The Problem of Exact Pitch… 274
(13) The Problem of Volume … 275
(14) The Problem of Tone Color … 276
(15) The Problem of Dynamics … 276
Index 277
Index of Subjects… 284
Index of Composers… 288
Index of Musical Works Cited… 288


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